By Friederike Moltmann
Summary items were a imperative subject in philosophy considering that antiquity. Philosophers have defended a variety of perspectives approximately summary items by means of beautiful to metaphysical issues, concerns relating to arithmetic or technology, and, no longer occasionally, intuitions approximately common language. This publication pursues the query of ways and no matter if normal language makes it possible for connection with summary gadgets in a completely systematic means. via making complete use of up to date linguistic semantics, it provides a far larger diversity of linguistic generalizations than has formerly been considered in philosophical discussions, and it argues for an ontological photo is especially diversified from that quite often taken without any consideration by means of philosophers and semanticists alike. connection with summary items reminiscent of houses, numbers, propositions, and levels is significantly extra marginal than quite often held. as a substitute, normal language is very beneficiant in permitting connection with particularized homes (tropes), using nonreferential expressions in obvious referential place, and using "nominalizing expressions," reminiscent of quantifiers like "something." connection with summary items is completed mostly in basic terms via 'reifying terms', reminiscent of "the quantity eight."
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Additional info for Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language
I will focus on explicit property-referring terms of the form the property of being wise with a gerund being wise. Such terms are syntactically complex: they are composed of the noun property (or a similar noun such as attribute or virtue) and a gerund, an expression derived from a VP but with the syntactic status of an NP. I will call the latter the denominative complement.
There is another type of predicate besides plural predicates that can take plural arguments. These are multigrade predicates (Oliver/Smiley 2004, Taylor/Hazen 1992). A multigrade predicate is a predicate that can take an unlimited number of arguments. It typically combines with a list of terms, which generally takes the form of a conjunction, as below: (79) John added two and two and two. Add is a multigrade predicate, or more precisely, it is a predicate that has two argument places (one for the subject and one for the object), and it is multigrade in its second place: the second place of add allows for an unlimited number of arguments, each occupying a different position within the second place of add.
A class is an entity that has essential integrity; and it is the existence of an entity constituted that way that is denied in (68b). However, the contrast also holds with (i) a. The class dispersed. b. The students dispersed. (ii) a. John organized the collection of things on his desk. b. John organized the things on his desk. The reason these predicates are acceptable with collective NPs is presumably that their content is not reducible in the same way to properties of group members, but rather involves a conﬁgurational property of the group as a whole.