By Renata Dmowska
A transparent exposition of the iteration T waves through earthquakes, the strain accumulation version, and seismic ray tracing and wavefront monitoring in laterally heterogeneous media.
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5 Hz), otherwise poorly sampled due to anelastic attenuation of conventional teleseismic waves. However and as detailed below, for larger earthquakes, T waves are strongly affected by interference resulting from source finiteness, and their amplitude alone cannot be a good proxy for source size. For this reason, the independent measurement of T -wave duration is necessary to retrieve an adequate estimate of an earthquake’s size. We discuss below the joint use of amplitude and duration, which can take two forms: by combining their values, in the form of the T -Phase Energy Flux (TPEF), Okal et al.
2004) model the scattering of acoustic energy into the water column through the Virtual Source Approach, which uses the Rayleigh–Kirchhoff approximation. They show that abyssal T phases can be interpreted as resulting from scattering of seismic energy trapped in sedimentary layers in the form of Scholte waves (Scholte, 1947). Using a simplified methodology, deGroot-Hedlin and Orcutt (1999) modeled scattering into a given acoustic mode by sea-floor heterogeneities as directly proportional to the product of the amplitude of the mode at the ocean–sediment interface and of the ground motion produced by the dislocation source at the relevant location.
2003) documented that all tsunami earthquakes are strongly deficient generators of T waves, by comparing them with regular events located in the same general area (Fig. 17). 7 logarithmic units, respectively), but the technique can be extended to analog records in the case of the 1963 Kuriles main aftershock, 1975 Kuriles earthquake and 1982 Tonga event, all of which were described as “tsunami earthquakes” (Fukao, 1979; Talandier and Okal, 1989). Also, Okal et al. (2003) and Okal (2004) showed that a faint T wave detected at Hawaii Volcano Observatory in the aftermath of the 1946 Aleutian earthquake arrived too late to be associated with the main shock, and thus confirmed that the latter had not generated a detectable T phase, which further supports its character as an exceptionally slow tsunami earthquake (Kanamori, 1972; López and Okal, 2006).