Agriculture and the Environment: Perspectives on Sustainable by Ernst Lutz

By Ernst Lutz

Agriculture in constructing international locations has been remarkably effective over the past few a long time; in spite of the fact that, the construction degrees have been accomplished on the fee of putting extra pressure on normal assets and the surroundings. This quantity brings jointly cutting-edge utilized, functional learn with regards to agriculture, improvement, and the surroundings within the constructing global. It makes an attempt to distill present wisdom and to summarize it in readable shape for improvement practitioners. the place attainable, authors use particular examples to point which methods have labored and that have now not, less than which stipulations, and why.

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According to their definition of sustainability, capital can be changed from one category into another, while keeping the total constant. Yet they also recognize that there may be critical levels of each type of capital (such as critical ecosystems) beyond which capital should not be substituted. The chapter discusses externality issues, environmental valuation techniques, and the design of appropriate incentive schemes that internalize external costs. Although there is great diversity in agroecological conditions around the developing world, the authors contrast two important types of systems because the environmental problems related to them are quite different.

Forest degradation represents a decrease of density or increase of disturbance in forest classes. Even when there may be little deforestation as such, degradation can imply major losses of forest products and ecological services, such as reductions in watershed and climate services, biodiversity, and carbon storage. Because private agents generally do not consider these costs in their decisions about logging and forest conversion, rates of depletion can be excessive from a societal view. Water Depletion, Water Degradation, and Waterlogging and Salinization Water is a vital economic asset that is already becoming scarce in many countries.

Brown, Lawrence Haddad, and Ruth Meinzen-Dick 186 Part III. Technical Issues and Perspectives 203 16 The Costs and Benefits of Soil Conservation in Central America and the Caribbean Ernst Lutz, Stefano Pagiola, and Carlos Reiche 215 17 Toward a Strategy for Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Agricultural Development Jitendra Srivastava, Nigel Smith, and Douglas A. Forno 230 18 Integrated Pest Management: Strategies and Policies for Effective Implementation Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen, Douglas A. Forno, Steen Joffe, Dina L.

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