By A. Mark Smith
Someday among 1028 and 1038, Ibn al-Haytham accomplished his enormous optical synthesis, Kitab al-Manazir ("Book of Optics"). by way of no later than 1200, and maybe a little past, this treatise seemed in Latin less than the name De aspectibus. In that shape it used to be attributed to a undeniable "Alhacen." those adjustments in name and authorial designation are indicative of the profound modifications among the 2 models, Arabic and Latin, of the treatise. in lots of methods, in truth, they are often appeared now not easily as varied models of an analogous paintings, yet as various works of their personal correct. consequently, the Arab writer, Ibn al-Haytham, and his Latin incarnation, Alhacen, signify special, occasionally even conflicting, interpretive voices. And an identical holds for his or her respective texts. To complicate concerns, "Alhacen" doesn't signify a unmarried interpretive voice. there have been at the least translators at paintings at the Latin textual content, one among them adhering faithfully to the Arabic unique, the opposite content material with distilling, even paraphrasing, the Arabic unique. accordingly, the Latin textual content provides now not one, yet at the least faces to the reader. quantity This two-volume serious variation represents fourteen years of labor on Dr. Smith's half. presented the 2001 J. F. Lewis Award. quantity Two--English Translation
Read or Download Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) PDF
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Additional info for Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception (First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus), Volume Two - English Translation (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society)
77Also, celestial bodies move along circularlines ratherthan along straightlines or lines of other kinds. And when we examine natural motions, we will find that each of them takes place accordingto specific lines. So it is not impossible for sight to be constituted in such a way as to suffer the effects of light and color along a specific set of straight lines that alone intersect at its center and are perpendicularto its surface. 78These lines are called "radiallines"by them. 44]Since this is possible, and since forms of light and color reachthe eye and pass through the transparencyof the tunics of the eye, and since vision is achieved upon the reception of these forms only when the eye receives them along perpendicularlines, sight perceives the light and colors of the surfacesof visible objectsonly throughforms reachingit from the surfaces of visible objects.
57]And it is obvious that vision occurs through the eye. This being the case, if sight perceives a visible objectonly when something issues from the eye to the visible objectbut what issues [fromthe eye] does not sense the visible object,then what issues from the eye to the visible objecttransmits nothing back to the eye to serve as the means through which it can perceive the visible object. Also, the idea that something issues from the eye is based not on empirical evidence but on supposition, and nothing should be supposed unless dictatedby logic.
This being the case, if sight perceives a visible objectonly when something issues from the eye to the visible objectbut what issues [fromthe eye] does not sense the visible object,then what issues from the eye to the visible objecttransmits nothing back to the eye to serve as the means through which it can perceive the visible object. Also, the idea that something issues from the eye is based not on empirical evidence but on supposition, and nothing should be supposed unless dictatedby logic. 58]But since a sensitive body cannot issue from the eye to the visible object,and since only a body can sense a visible object,the only option left is to suppose thatwhat issues from the eye to the visible objecttakes something from the visible object and transmitsit to the eye.