All About Chess and Computers: Chess and Computers and More by David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)

By David Levy, Monroe Newborn (auth.)

For a while now, i've got felt that the time is correct to jot down a e-book approximately computing device Chess. Ever because the first makes an attempt at chess seasoned­ gramming have been made, a few twenty 5 years in the past, curiosity within the topic ha"s grown from 12 months to 12 months. through the overdue Fifties the topic was once first delivered to the eye of the general public by means of a piece of writing in Scient(fic American, and not more than a decade later a chess application used to be competing in a event with people. extra lately, there were tournaments within which the one members have been machine courses. and whilst the 1st global laptop Championship was once held in Stockholm in 1974 the development used to be a superb luck. Laymen frequently doubt the worth of making an investment in an issue so esoteric as desktop chess, yet there's certainly significant gain to be received from a research of the automisation of chess and different highbrow video games. If it proves attainable to play such video games good via computing device, then the options hired to examine and examine destiny positions in those video games can also be worthy in different difficulties in long-range making plans. i've got attempted to make this e-book either attention-grabbing and instructive. those that comprehend something in any respect approximately chess yet who've no wisdom of pcs, could be in a position to stick with my description of ways desktops play chess. people with an information of either components will nonetheless locate a lot to curiosity them.

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Now, after Black moves his attacked bishop and White retreats his own bishop, the capture of the QN7 pawn has not been averted, but its capture will occur at a depth too great for the program to see at this point. This move is the earliest example of what is known today as the 'horizon effect' . The amusing thing is that 16 R-N5 is White's best move, but Turing and many later writers have overlooked the reason. 16 ... B-N3 17 B-N5? An aimless move. 17 B-QB4 was obviously the best choice since if Black were then to capture the QNP White could play 18 P-R5 trapping the bishop 52 The Early History of Computer Chess (18 ...

This deterred moving the queen from the back two ranks before castling. The mobility score was not a simple count of the number of moves that could be made by all pieces, but a weighted measure that placed a greater value on attacking certain squares than on attacking certain others. For every square attacked 1 point was scored. For every square attacked that was adjacent to the enemy king an extra 2 points were scored. For each attack on one of the four central squares an extra 1 point was scored.

One of the strongest American programs of the early 19705, TECH, employed only one feature in its evaluation mechanism -material. After material, the second most important feature in chess is mobility. By mobility we mean the number of legal moves that can be made in a given position. Material and mobility are obviously linked since, in general, the more pieces we have the more moves we can make. But mobility is a very useful addition as a measure, since there are many chess positions in which the real value of a piece lies in the moves it can make rather than in its simple material measure.

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