By S K Kawatra
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1993; Somasundaran and Markovic 1998; Perrone et al. 2002). 5–8) Float Fine Silica to Tailings Phosphate Concentrate Source: Adapted from Guan 2009b. 3 CRAGO DOUBLE FLOAT PROCESS Since being patented in 1942, the Crago double float process has been the industry standard for the beneficiation of siliceous phosphate ores. Cleaner flotation where fine silica is floated from phosphate concentrate using a cationic amine collector. 23 shows a simplified process flow diagram for the Crago process. 5−3 minutes (Wiegel 1999).
The purpose of the scavenger is to recover any valuable mineral that may not have been recovered during rougher flotation. The cleaner is used to remove any gangue mineral that may have reported to the froth concentrate during rougher flotation. Circuits can be set up in many ways and may consist of numerous cleaner stages to produce a high-grade concentrate. 2 Contact Angle Theory Contact angle is a measurement used to quantify the wettability of a solid surface. When a drop of water is placed on a solid surface, it will either bead up or spread out depending largely on the surface energy of the solid.
Coarser hydrophilic particles drain more quickly from the froth, and therefore are entrained at a lower rate than finer hydrophilic particles (Kawatra and Eisele 2001). Based on this figure, it would be most efficient to operate a flotation system at the lowest water recovery that still achieves optimal recovery of the strongly hydrophobic mineral. As the water recovery rate is increased past the optimum point, the recovery of gangue particles due to entrainment significantly outweighs any additional recovery of the hydrophobic mineral.