By Y. C. Fung
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Many other approaches have been proposed. See Biomechanics (Fung, 1981)for details. Some physiologists (see Brady , 1979)doubt whether one has any right to hope for such a simple set of formulas to represent the mechanical properties of the heart muscle. Others have advanced theories of actin -myosin interaction on the basis of chemical reaction rates, electromagnetic fields, or optimum design principles. These elegant approaches are either too crude to yield realistic relations required in the analysis of the heart, or are many, many times more complex than the formulas presented above, or contain a large number of unknown constants.
Very rapidly the cell membrane becom es depolarized and the potential difference reversed , so that the potential of the interior of the cell exceeds that of the exterior by about 20 mV. Immedi ately following the upstroke there is a brief rapid change of potential in the direction of repolarizat ion. 4 : I Patterns of ventricular contraction. (a) Right ventricular ejection is accomplished primarily by compression of the right ventricular cavity, but also by downward displacement of the tricuspid valve ring (shortening of the free wall).
The solution of these equations is difficult , but valuable. To solve these equations , we have essentially all the basic information we need, except one : the residual stress in the heart wall, which will be discussed in the sections to follow. 8 Stresses in the Heart Wall We need to know stresses and strains in the heart wall in order to know how the muscle contracts (Sec. 7), where on the length -tension curve (Sec. 1, Fig. 1 : 3) the points MC, AC of Fig. 7 :2 correspond to, how the blood vessels in the heart wall are deformed and so affect the coronary circulation and health of the heart muscle (Chaps.