Biological Effects and Exposure Limits for ''Hot by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional info for Biological Effects and Exposure Limits for ''Hot Particles'': Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (Ncrp Report, No. 130)

Sample text

The outermost layer, t h e s t r a t u m corneum, is ' - Fig. 1. " The papillary dermis (2) with loosely arranged collagen fibers and a well developed papillary vascular network, and the much thicker reticular dermis (3)with its thick structural collagen bundles. The bulbs of hair follicles impinge on the subcutaneous fatty layer (4) (ICRP,1991b). 1. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF SKIN AND EAR 1 41 composed of flattened dead cells, which provide a waterproof covering. , 1983) and comprises about 25 percent of the total epidermal thickness (Holbrook and Odland, 1974).

The latter study in man was based on clinical measurements of the growth of macro-colonies of epithelial cells in areas 50 1 4. BIOLOGY AND RADIATION RESPONSE OF SKIN of moist desquamation in patients that had received fractionated radiotherapy. , approximately 50 percent after 8 Gy and 70 to 80 percent afier 20 Gy. A similar conclusion was reached on the basis of histological studies in pig skin after x irradiation (Morris and Hopewell, 1989). , 1976). These findings have important implications for large-field irradiation with beta rays, since basal cells from withln the canal of hair follicles will be spared in exposures involvingintermediate-energy beta-emitting radionuclides.

2 RADIATION RESPONSE O F SKIN 47 The middle ear is an irregularly shaped cavity in bony tissue. It is filled with air and is connected to the naso-pharynx by the eustachian tube. The cavity between the tympanic membrane and the labyrinth or inner ear is transversed by a moveable chain of three bones; malleus, incus and stapes. The cavity has a maximum diameter of approximately 15 mm. The mucosal lining of the middle ear cavity also covers the tympanic membrane making it a tri-layered structure with a middle fibrous layer sandwiched between the mucosal and cutaneous surfaces.

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