Biology 12 by Leesa Blake, Meaghan Craven, Darcy Dobell, Nancy Flood, Gord

By Leesa Blake, Meaghan Craven, Darcy Dobell, Nancy Flood, Gord Jasper, Catherine Little, Adrienne Mason, Grace Price, Karin Banerd, Jonathan Bocknek, Marshall Letcher, D'Arcy Little

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The maximum rate of reaction for the enzyme pepsin, which is found in the stomach, occurs at a pH of about 2. Trypsin, an enzyme found in the small intestine, performs best at a pH of about 8. SKILL FOCUS 2 • B Initiating and planning Affecting Enzyme Activity Predicting The compound hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 , is a by-product of metabolic reactions in most living organisms. However, hydrogen peroxide is damaging to delicate molecules inside cells. As a result, nearly all organisms produce the enzyme peroxidase, which breaks down H2O2 as it is formed.

Many small, non-polar solute molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, pass through the bilayer of the cell membrane with least resistance. They enter by means of diffusion, a form of passive transport. As you learned in previous studies, in this method of cellular transport, molecules move from regions of high concentration to those of low concentration. Water, a small polar molecule, can travel through the cell membrane freely in the process of osmosis. This process involves the movement of the solvent water from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water.

As you learned in previous studies, in this method of cellular transport, molecules move from regions of high concentration to those of low concentration. Water, a small polar molecule, can travel through the cell membrane freely in the process of osmosis. This process involves the movement of the solvent water from an area of higher concentration of water to an area of lower concentration of water. Some molecules are too large to diffuse unassisted across the cell membrane. These molecules enter the cell by means of specialized proteins called carrier proteins — they move and change shape to create an opening into the cell.

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