By Sun Zhenjun (auth.), Ayten Karaca (eds.)
Earthworms, which belong to the order Oligochaeta, contain approximately 3,000 species grouped into 5 households. Earthworms were known as ‘ecosystem engineers’; very similar to human engineers, they alter the constitution in their environments. Earthworms are very flexible and are present in approximately all terrestrial ecosystems. They play a big function in woodland and agricultural ecosystems. This Soil Biology quantity describes a few of the aspects of earthworms, corresponding to their position in soil development, soil constitution, and the biocontrol of soil-borne plant fungal ailments. experiences talk about earthworms’ innate immune method, molecular markers to deal with a number of problems with earthworm ecology, earthworm inhabitants dynamics, and the affects of natural farming structures and tillage. additional issues contain the features of vermicompost, relationships among soil earthworms and enzymes, the function of spermathecae, copulatory habit, and adjustment of the donated sperm volume.
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Longa. Although (sub)adults made up only a small portion of the total earthworm numbers (14, 9 and 14% for AITC, formalin and mustard, respectively), they constituted an important part of the earthworm biomass (54, 46 and 54% for AITC, formalin and mustard, respectively). 167 for biomass, respectively). 030). 309, respectively). Also comparable numbers of endogeic species (A. chlorotica, A. caliginosa, A. rosea and O. 077). 023). 093, respectively). 030, respectively). 1 Concentration Optimization In spite of the intentional use of similar AITC concentrations both in mustard and pure AITC treatments, the latter were generally spoken more efficient in sampling earthworms than mustard.
2a; 121 mÀ2 vs. 535) and biomass (Fig. 45 g mÀ2 vs. 360). The hand sorted soil samples tended to yield higher earthworm numbers and biomass after mustard extraction than after formalin Earthworm abundance (m–2 ) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Earthworm biomass (g m–2) 2 Optimizing Earthworm Sampling in Ecosystems 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 a AITC Formalin Mustard extraction Earthworm species number soil total b AITC Formalin Mustard extraction 8 25 soil total c 6 AITC Formalin Mustard 4 2 0 extraction soil total Fig.
Interestingly, the greatest differences between methods were found in the soil fraction. On the one hand, the soil samples after formalin extraction contained more numbers of anecics (and not endogeics as could be expected from formalin’s lower extraction efficiency) than after mustard extraction (with intermediate values for AITC). On the other hand, more endogeics and juveniles were collected in soil samples after mustard extraction than after AITC extraction (with intermediate values for formalin).