By Vandana Shiva
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This was the article under which Novartis’s patent claim to a known cancer drug was rejected. This is the article that Novartis tried to challenge in the Supreme court and lost. ” This was the article used by the Indian patent office to reject a Monsanto patent on climate-resilient seeds. S. Supreme Court ruled on behalf of Monsanto against a farmer called Bowman who had not bought seeds from Monsanto but instead purchased soybeans from an Indiana grain elevator. S. Supreme court ruling creates intellectual property in future generations of a grain or seed.
In continuity with conquest by naturalization, biodiversity is being defined as nature—the cultural and intellectual contributions of non-Western knowledge systems are being systematically erased. Today’s patents have a continuity with those issued to Columbus, Sir John Cabot, Sir Humphery Gilbert, and Sir Walter Raleigh. The conflicts that have been unleashed by the GATT treaty, by patents on life-forms, by the patenting of indigenous knowledge, and by genetic engineering are grounded in processes that can be summarized and symbolized as the second coming of Columbus.
He created a small business, employed a dozen people and contributed to the multiplier effect before the valve was superseded some 20 years later by other types of valves. The man never thought much about intellectual property. He simply took for granted that he could get a patent and build a business from it. In Lima, Peru, young Carlos (a fictional proxy for much of the developing world) earns a meagre living welding replacement mufflers under trucks and cars. He thinks of a clamp for simplified muffler installation.
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