Blasting in Ground Excavations and Mines by B. Singh, P. Pal Roy, R. B. Singh, A. Bagchi, M. M. Singh

By B. Singh, P. Pal Roy, R. B. Singh, A. Bagchi, M. M. Singh

Discussing blasting in floor excavations and mines, this article covers uncomplicated rules, ordinary suggestions, major variables, optimal layout features, variations of a few actual ideas within the context of mine and floor excavations.

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2: Effect of alteration on fresh rock Term Symbol Description Fresh Fr/A1 No visible sign of alteration; perhaps slight discoloration on defect surfaces. Slightly altered SA/A2 Alteration confined to veins and/or veinlets. Little or no penetration of alteration beyond vein/veinlet boundaries. No discernible effect on the strength properties of the parent rock type. Moderately altered MA/A3 Alteration is controlled by veins and may penetrate wall rock as narrow vein selvages or envelopes. Alteration may also be pervasive but weakly developed.

More sophisticated 2D and 3D core scanning techniques are being developed, but they are not yet widely used because of their cost and the need to rehandle the core. After the core picture is properly labelled it should be stored in an appropriate database. A simple and effective solution is to store the pictures in basic folders and use a viewing program to access and review the files. This program should have the capability to view several thumbnails of photographs at the same time. 13. 13: Screen snapshot of a drill core database/viewer Source: Photo courtesy J.

The joints are at small angles to the zone boundaries; they are usually slightly curved and divide the mass into unit blocks of lenticular or wedge shape; their surfaces are smooth or slickensided TYPE ‘R’ ranging to TYPE ‘S’ A discontinuity or crack: planar, curved or irregular, across which the rock usually has little tensile strength. e. as individual layers or layered zones ␤ ͕ when ␤ ϭ 0Њ ͕ max. min. when ␤ ϭ 90Њ Deformation modulus usually higher for ␤ ϭ 0Њ than for ␤ ϭ 90Њ Tensile strength usually • Where uniformly developed in a rock substance any of these types of structure render that rock substance anisotropic in its behaviour under stress • Compressive Strengths min.

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