By Paul P. Kolodziejczyk, Fereidoon Shahidi (auth.), Fereidoon Shahidi, Paul Kolodziejczyk, John R. Whitaker, Agustin Lopez Munguia, Glenn Fuller (eds.)
Food and uncooked fabric for its creation was once typically produced through the conventional agriculture. nonetheless, novel chemical compounds have been synthetic within the laboratory or extracted from plant and animal resources. even if, because the international inhabitants is gradually in creasing, there's a lessen in conventional agriculture productiveness and matters also are expressed over the wear inflicted to the surroundings and regulations that will be en compelled in nutrition construction. even as, there's an expanding call for for prime qual ity agricultural items in addition to for meals elements regarding either the conventional or newly came upon food or phytochemicals. tendencies and developments,~n the world of plant biotechnology and bioengineering has allowed manipulation of genes' !lnd/or insertion of recent genes, therefore construction of trans genic vegetation. ranging from the advent of agronomic characteristics, relatively pressure resis tance to various environmental elements, approach and sensory features, foodstuff caliber and construction of novel kinds of plant-based items via genetic engineering, biotechnology is altering the,;agriculture and the concept that of creation of plant-ba~~d uncooked fabrics. expanding realization is being paid on learn for creation of vegetation !pat supplies a wide range of nutrition and non-food items. maybe the 1st non-food pro,d uct that plant biotechnology might in attaining is creation of enormous scale custom-designed business oils, however the checklist of chemical substances is lengthy, ranging" from oils and particular triacyl glycerols to biopolymers, enzymes, blood elements, amo~g others.
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Since the formation of such fatty acids is under genetic control, the genes responsible can be isolated and transferred to one of the high-yielding major crop species. In principle, therefore, it is now possible to envisage the production on an agricultural scale of a vegetable oil containing any fatty acid chain length ranging from C6 to C24 with varying degrees of unsaturation, epoxidation, branching or hydroxylation, depending on the requirements of the customer (Murphy, 1996). Oilseeds can also be used as vehicles for the large scale production of a wide range of fat-soluble products, including vitamins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural control agents.
8 Blocked l-acyl-2-oleoylsn-glycerol ---tl-l"~ 2 I Favored 2-Ricinoleoyl-PC , 2-0Ieoyl-PC ~ 3 Favored Ricinoleate - - - - !.. ~ 3 Oleate ~4 ~ Ricinoleoyl-CoA Triacylglycerols 2-Linoleoyl-PC ~ 3 Linoleate 4 Oleoyl-CoA ~4 Linoleoyl-CoA ~5 Ricinoleoyl-lysoPA Diricinoleoyl-PA ~ 7 1,2-Diricinoleoyl-sn-glycerol , 8 Favored Triricinolein (favored), 1,2-Diricinoleoyl-3-oleoyl-sll-glycerol, 1,2-Dirkinoleoyl-3-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol and 1,2-Diricinoleoyl-3-linolenoyl-sn-glycerol Figure 6. Triricinolein biosynthesis.
An example of a complex trait relating to oil quality in rapeseed is the accumulation oflauric acid. Although up to 50% levels oflauric acid were achieved by the insertion of a single thioesterase gene from the California bay, it was not possible to achieve higher levels of lauric acid with a single-gene insertion; An important constraint is the selectivity of the acyltransferases responsible for incorporating fatty acids into triacylglycerols (Voelker et aI, 1996). This problem has been partially overcome by the transfer of a second gene, this time encoding a coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, which readily accepts lauric acid as a substrate as opposed to the endogenous rapeseed enzyme which is highly selective against lauric acid.