Cone Penetration Testing. Methods and Interpretation by A. C. Meigh

By A. C. Meigh

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A safety hammer delivers to the rods a b o u t 6 0 % of the free-fall energy, which is similar to that delivered by trip hammers in use in the U K . , 1985). The fact that there may be a difference is n o t very important when converting from qct o N for 38 Parameters in cohesionless soils foundation calculations, because Figure 19 is mainly based o n slip-rope N values. Most of the empirical correlations between N and bearing capacity a n d settlement (see Section 8) are also based o n the slip-rope method.

39 For more compressible sands, <)>' is up to 2° higher. For very compressible sands, <(>' may be very much higher. <(>' decreases with increasing confining stress. 85

5 is shown. This compares with a Nk = 19 for Boom clay found by Carpentier (1982), when he based the shear strength on laboratory tests on small specimens. Glacial clays generally have a macrofabric which has less influence on bulk strength than that of a stiff, fissured clay. The Nk values for glacial clays in Figure 26 average a b o u t 18, falling mainly between 14 and 22. The lower Nk values in Zone B, and those in Z o n e A, apply where glacial clays have a more subdued macrostructure. Semple and Johnson (1979) reported an average Nk of 17 in the northern N o r t h Sea and 15 in the central N o r t h Sea for glacial clays described as being 'apparently free from structural discontinuities'.

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