By Mohammad Gharipour
The center East is famous for its ancient gardens that experience built over greater than millenniums. The position of city panorama initiatives in center jap towns has grown in prominence, with a steady shift in emphasis from gardens for the non-public sphere to an more and more public functionality. The modern panorama tasks, both designed as public plazas or public parks, have performed an important position in shifting the trendy heart jap towns to a brand new period and in addition in remodeling to a newly formed social tradition during which the general public has a voice. This book considers what ties those tasks to their ancient context, and what nearby and native components and ideas were utilized in their design.
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Ziva Kolodney and Rachel Kallus, “The Politics of Landscape (Re)Production: Haifa between Colonialism and Nation Building,” Landscape Journal 27, no. 2–8 (2008): 177. 13Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature,” 108. 14Zeynep Kezer, “Contesting Urban Space in Early Republican Ankara,” Journal of Architectural Education 52, no. 1 (September 1998): 13. , “Qualifying Urban Landscapes,” 28. 16Rosenberg, “Public Works and Public Space,” 89. , “Qualifying Urban Landscapes,” 24. , townscape, built form, permeability, landscape, and furniture).
Such rich cultural and geographic diversity accounts for the range of ideas explored in the design and construction of landscape projects throughout this region. 61 Increasing environmental problems threatening urban areas – due to the lack of policy planning or to the unsuccessful implementation of well-intentioned schemes – indicate a need for more ecologically efficient projects. 62 The need for sustainable architecture and urbanism has motivated decision-makers to consider natural resources in their development plans.
26Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature,” 125. 27General paradigms of landscape perception include the psychological, cognitive, and experiential. Erwin H. Zube, James L. Sell, and Jonathan G. Taylor, “Landscape Perception: Research, Application, and Theory,” Landscape Planning 9, no. 1 (1982): 1–33. 28Spirn, “The Poetics of City and Nature,” 114. , 115. 30The development of community gardens in the United States and Europe represents landscape projects that have enabled people to become more involved in their community, while improving neighborhoods and personal health outcomes.
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