Control Aspects of Prosthetics and Orthotics. Proceedings of by R. M. Campbell

By R. M. Campbell

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Additional info for Control Aspects of Prosthetics and Orthotics. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium, Ohio, USA, 7–9 May 1982

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Knee mo­ ment (Mk) is then found from Fa by Mk = Fa Ks sinB , (11) where Ks and B are as shown in Fig. 4. g. May, 1971; Radcliffe, 1973) by Mk = I (0h-0k) + m Xk h cos(Oh-Ok) + (m Yk + Ws) h sin(Oh-Ok) . (12) where m and I are the mass and moment of in­ ertia of the shank, respectively, and the joint angles Oh and 0k are as shown in Fig. 4. In this development the leg is represent­ ed as a compound pendulum consisting of two links connected at a frictionless pivot. Mo­ tion of the pendulum is assumed to be con­ strained to the sagittal plane.

During the swing phase, the main function of the knee is to dissipate energy. In stair descent, the knee acts almost exclusively as an energy dissipator. In ramp descent both active and passive functions are present. During each of these modes the other body segments are interacting with the knee in a complex manner to produce a locomotion system that is extremely versatile. If one of the body segments is injured, it can no longer perform its normal function. As a result, other segments are adjusted to compensate for the injured segment to provide overall dynamic stability and similar function.

Subjects also can perform gross manipulation of most other objects which are encountered in daily living activities. Palmar prehension Palmar prehension requires that the thumb move into a position of abduction opposite to the index and long fingers. Subsequent finger flexion will result in grasp between the fingers and thumb. Control of grasp is primarily through the finger flexors and extensors, with the thumb acting as a post against which objects are pressed. Figure 4 shows the coordination algorithm for palmar prehension.

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