Crosslinguistic Views on Tense, Aspect and Modality by Angeliek van Hout, Bart Hollebrandse, Co Vet

By Angeliek van Hout, Bart Hollebrandse, Co Vet

This Cahiers Chronos quantity studies on new and ongoing study on annoying, element and modality within which various languages has been amassed. The languages mentioned via the authors contain (in alphabetical order): Brazilian Portuguese, chinese language, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, jap, Polish, Russian and Spanish. The articles shape a range of the papers awarded on the fifth Chronos convention that came about on the college of Groningen, the Netherlands, in June 2002. we've labeled the papers into 3 sections: stressful, element and Modality. evidently, this ordering is a little arbitrary provided that a number of the papers go those particularly inflexible limitations, as they talk about the interaction of stressful and point or stressful and modality. This publication is of curiosity for students within the box of semantics, common sense, syntax, and comparative linguistics.

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Expressing a condition or giving a temporal specification) that they should be interpreted opaquely. 3. A second type of subclauses is only very loosely or even not semantically linked with the head clause. , this is reflected by a loose syntactic link. Thirdly, some clause types allow either an opaque or a transparent interpretation (the latter being the marked option), leaving the choice to the speaker. With reference to restrictive relative clauses (cf. ), Depraetere (1996 : 177) mentions two rather vague contexts in which the marked option (FPS) is chosen : factors leading to misinterpretation of PPSforms, on the one hand, and the wish to convey particular semantic-pragmatic effects typical of the FPS.

8% of the present tenses in Dutch are translations of English presents. English uses the future tense in most cases (59%), as in (8). 2. Future contextualization A clear future contextualization is a necessary condition for a shift of temporal perspective in order to avoid ambiguity with a present reading. In the examples (9) the context has a disambiguating function. It makes clear whether or not the situation is to be interpreted as lying in the post-present. (9) (10) (11) 10 a. b. c. d. She is giving a lecture there.

In the first place, it can be totally determined in the lexicon, by means of its conceptual sense. As the temporal information presented so far solely quantifies the noun internally, examples like (15-16) are ungrammatical : (15) * ex-honden ‘former dogs’ (16) * de ex-vader van Napoleon ‘the former father of Napoleon’ The nouns cited above are ‘individual-level’ nouns : once an entity is attributed the property of ‘father’ or ‘dog’, this property cannot be lost. ). Predicates attributing an agentive property to a noun, 8 For simplicity, I do not consider the role of TRef here, and give TRef the same role as TU and STV in order to allow the appearance of nouns with/without temporal modification.

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