Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control (Astrophysics by J. R. Wertz

By J. R. Wertz

This vintage publication is the 1st complete presentation of information, thought, and perform in perspective research. It used to be written by means of 33 senior technical employees individuals within the Spacecraft perspective division of the pc Sciences company and comprises their adventure in assisting greater than 30 house missions. as a result of vast cross-references, entire index, and thirteen technical appendices, this ebook might be both a self educating textual content, or a reference instruction manual. between its distinctive positive factors are orthographic globe projections to get rid of confusion in vector drawings; discussions of universal information anomalies, info validation, perspective undefined, and linked mathematical types; and a presentation of latest geometrical tactics for project research and angle accuracy reviews which could dispose of many complicated simulations.

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Spacecraft-Fixed Coordinates. Coordinate systems fixed in the spacecraft are used to define the orientation of attitude determination and control hardware and are the systems in which attitude measurements are made. Throughout this book, spacecraft-fixed spherical coordinates will use ell for the azimuth component and A for the elevation. Alternatively, 8 will be used for the coelevation; that is, 8 =90 A. For spinning spacecraft, the positive pole of the coordinate system will be the positive spin vector, unless otherwise specified.

On three-axis stabilized spacecraft, this scanning motion is not available without the addition of moving parts, which are subject to wear and mechanical failure. Thus, we would like to have detectors that could sense the orientation of reference vectors over large portions of the sky without the sensor itself moving. One such sensor is the two-axis Sun sensor, or solid angle Sun sensor, which is equivalent to two of the spinning Sun sensors described above mounted perpendicular to each olher, as shown in Fig.

Thus, S -I is the antisolar point and A - I is the negative attitude axis. The antinadir, E -I, or direction opposite the center of the Earth, is called the zenith. After Fig. 2-2, the spacecraft at the center of the sphere and the lines from the center to the surface of the sphere will be omitted and we . will speak of geometry on the celestial sphere. A great circle on the celestial sphere is any circle that divides the sphere into two equal hemispheres. Ariy other circle on the celestial sphere is called a small circle.

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